As usual, I found the answer on Stack Overflow.
Beam me [up](#enterprise), Scotty
It’s a great way to move around in longer content.
2014-03-03: I no longer publish using Octopress; but this should work in most cases where Markdown is used. Bitbucket is a notable exception. For Github wiki, you’ll need something like:
# <a name="heading1" /> Heading 1 #
and for the link to that anchor:
[link to heading1](#heading1)